Early Years: Studying Hard for Saving the Country (1866~1894)

Organizing Xing Zhong Hui & Tong Meng Hui, Sowing the Seeds of Revolution(1895~1905)

Holding the Banner of Uprising, Establishing the Republic of China(1906~1911)

Planning the Second Revolution, Safeguarding the Constitution(1912~1918)

Reorganizing the Revolutionary Party, Launching the Northern Expedition(1919~1922)

Peaceful Unification of the Country -- A Great Historic Achievement(1923~1940)

Early Years: Studying Hard for Saving the Country (1866~1894)
Time Event
1866Nov. 12Sun was born in Cuiheng Village, Xiangshan (today’s Zhongshan) County, Guangdong Province.
1872Sun entered a traditional private tutor school.
1879JuneSun arrived at Kahulu on Maui, Hawaii, where he was employed by his brother Sun Mei as a shop attendant and later enrolled in a primary school.
1879AugustSun attended Iolani School in Honolulu to study English.
1882July Sun graduated from the Iolani School.
1883Spring Sun transferred to the Oahu College in Honolulu.
1883SummerInstructed by his brother Sun De-Zhang, Sun went back to hometown in China.
1883AutumnSun left home for Hong Kong and entered the Diocesan Home to continue his education. Around the end of the year, Sun converted to Christianity.
1884Spring Sun transferred to the Queen’s College in Hong Kong.
1884MayHe married Ms. Lu Mu-zhen.
1885June After the Qing Court won the Sino-French War but signed the humiliating Tianjin Treaty and ceded Vietnam to France, Sun determined to overthrow the Qing Dynasty and build the republic.
1885Summer Sun graduated from the Queen’s College.
1886Sun enrolled in the Canton (Pok-Tsai) Hospital Medical College, where he began advocating his revolution ideas.
1887JanuarySun transferred to the College of Medicine for Chinese in Hong Kong.
1888March Sun’s father Sun Da-cheng passed away at the age of 76.
1890Sun developed close comradeship with classmates Yang He-ling, Chen Shao-bai and You Lie. Four of them were nicknamed the “Four Desperados.”
1890In his letter to a retired official, Zheng Zao-ru, who was a native of his hometown, Sun pointed out that China should learn from the West and reform itself.
1891OctoberSun’s son, Sun Fo (Zhe-sheng), was born.
1892JulySun graduated from the College of Medicine for Chinese, Hong Kong, with the most outstanding records and started his internship at the Kiang Wu Hospital in Macao.
1892DecemberSun opened the West-Orient Pharmacy in Macao.
1893SpringSun renamed his pharmacy as East-West Pharmacy and moved it to Guangzhou as a camouflage for his revolutionary campaign.
1894SpringAfter staying more than 10 days in the countryside, Sun completed drafting his proposal to Li Hong-zhang, in which he stated that the essential principle of statism for development lies in full utilization of human, land, and natural resources and free circulation of commodities.
1894SummerSun quit medical practice and went to Tianjin with Lu Hao-dong to present his proposal (see above) to Li Hong-zhang. He then traveled through Beijing and Wuhan to survey the situation in China.
1894OctoberSun visited Honolulu again.
1894Nov. 24Sun established the Xing Zhong Hui (Revive China Society) in Honolulu.
Organizing Xing Zhong Hui & Tong Meng Hui,
Sowing the Seeds of Revolution (1895~1905)
Time Event
1895January Sun, together with Deng Yin-nan and others, returned to Hong Kong to launch the revolutionary campaign.
1895Feb. 21Sun set up the Xing Zhong Hui Hong Kong branch, under the camouflage of Qian Xiang Shop.
1895Mar. 16Guangzhou Uprising was plotted and the “Blue Sky with a White Sun” flag was used as the revolutionary army’s flag.
1895Oct. 26The details of Guangzhou Uprising were leaked to the government and led to its failure.
1895Nov. 7Lu Hao-dong was executed and Sun was put on the wanted list by the Qing government.
1895NovermberSun and Chen Shao-bai fled to Japan and established a Xing Zhong Hui branch in Yokohama.
1896JanuarySun revisited Honolulu.
1896June Sun traveled to the mainland of the United States.
1896SeptemberHe visited London.
1896Oct. 11Sun was kidnapped by the Chinese Legation Officials in London. This 12-day episode is detailed in his Kidnapped in London.
1896NovemberAt the invitation of a British sinologist, Mr. H. A. Giles, Sun wrote his autobiography.
1897Jan. ~ Jul.Sun studied European political systems in the British Museum and completed the framework for his Three Principles of the People.
1897Jul. 8Sun returned to Yokohama via Canada and established the East-West School there. Sun befriended Miyazaki Torazo and other Japanese. Sun began to use the pseudonym Nakayama (Zhongshan Qiao) and ever since he was known as Sun Zhongshan.
1897December Sun asked Chen Shao-bai to establish a Xing Zhong Hui branch in Taipei.
1898Spring ~ SummerSun traveled in-between Tokyo, Nagasaki, Kobe, Simonoseki and Yokohama. He acquainted Mario Ponce, the Representative of the Philippine Independence Revolutionary Army.
1898Autum ~ WinterSun sought to form anti-Qing coalition with Liang Qichao then exiling in Japan but failed.
1899Spring ~ SummerSun continued to plot anti-Qing movements in Japan. He also assisted the Philippine Independence Revolutionary Army with weapons purchase and transport.
1899DecemberSun instructed Chen Shao-bai to inaugurate the newspaper China Daily in Hong Kong.
1899Winter The heads of Ge Lao Hui (Brotherhood Society) and San He Hui (Trinity Society) met Xing Zhong Hui in Hong Kong and decided to form Xing Han Hui with Sun as its president.
1900SpringThe Boxers’ Rebellion erupted in several northern Chinese provinces and led to the invasion of the Allies of the Eight Nations.
1900Spring ~ SummerSun made preparations in Japan, Hong Kong, Vietnam and Singapore for armed uprisings in China.
1900June Sun, together with Miyazaki Torazo, tried to visit Hong Kong, but their entry was denied.
1900JulySun traveled again to Hong Kong. During the voyage, the Huizhou Uprising was decided and planned.
1900September Sun arrived in Taipei and set up the Huizhou Uprising Headquarters.
1900Oct. 8Zheng Shi-liang, a close friend of Sun, commanded the uprising in Sanzhoutian, Huizhou.
1900Oct. 22As the needed supplies and ammunition were blockaded by the Japanese government, Zheng Shi-liang was forced to disband his men. The second uprising led by Sun failed.
1900Oct. 28Shi Jian-ru was arrested and executed for his unsuccessful attempt to assassinate the Governor General of Guangdong and Guangxi.
1901January Sun arrived in Japan.
1901Jan. 10Yang Qu-yun, co-founder of the Xing Zhong Hui in Hong Kong, was murdered.
1901Aug. 27Zheng Shi-liang passed away in Hong Kong.
1902DecemberSun went to the Hanoi World Exposition and founded a Xing Zhong Hui branch in Hanoi.
1903Jan. 28Hong Quan-fu staged an aborted uprising in Guangzhou.
1903JulySun left Hanoi for Yokohama.
1903August Sun set up a revolutionary military academy in Tokyo.
1903SeptemberSun left Japan for Honolulu.
1904JanuarySun joined the Hong Men Society.
1904SpringSun visited the mainland of the United States. He re-organized the Hong Men Society and published the Da Tong Daily through which he launched serious debates with the conservatives.
1904AugustSun published The True Solution to the Chinese Problem in New York to debunk the “yellow peril” theory spread by imperialists and proclaim that China is on the eve of a great national movement and would eventually emerge as a guard of world peace.
1904Winter Sun left the United States for Britain.
1905SpringSun visited Brussels, where he called on overseas Chinese students to form revolutionary organizations.
1905SummerSun toured Paris and Berlin to rally overseas Chinese students to form revolutionary organizations and join the revolution endeavor.
1905 JuneSun made a stop in Singapore on his way from France to Japan. He returned to Yokohama in July.
1905Aug. 20Hua Xing Hui (Chinese Restoration Society) and Guang Fu Hui merged to form the Tong Meng Hui (Federal Association of China) in Tokyo with Sun selected as its president.
1905Sep. 24Wu Yue was killed at the scene when attempting to bomb five Qing ministers at the Beijing Railway Station.
1905Nov. 26Min Pao (People’s Journal), the organ of Tong Meng Hui, was published in Tokyo. In his inaugurating editorial, Sun, for the first time, announced and advocated Three Principles of the People.
1905Dec. 8Chen Tian-hua, secretary of Tong Meng Hui, drowning himself in the sea to protest against the Japanese government’s action, at the request of the Qing Ambassador, to arrest Chinese students engaged in anti-Qing activities.
Holding the Banner of Uprising, Establishing
the Republic of China (1906~1911)
Time Event
1906Apr. 6Sun left Europe for Singapore to establish a Tong Meng Hui branch there.
1906JulySun visited Kuala Lumpur and Penang to set up Tong Meng Hui branches.
1906Autum ~ WinterSun led the completion of The Revolution Program for Tong Meng Hui, consisting of 8 documents, such as The Proclamation of the Military Government and The Proclamation to Foreign Nations.
1906DecemberTong Meng Hui members staged uprisings in Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces.
1906Winter Sun compiled the Tong Meng Hui’s Strategy and Scheme of Revolution.
1907Mar. 4Sun and Hu Han-min arrived in Hanoi from Japan to establish revolutionary headquarters.
1907May 22Sun instructed Yu Chou to stage the third uprising in Huanggang, Guangdong, which was defeated after six days.
1907Jun. 2Sun instructed Deng Zi-yu to stage an uprising in Huizhou, Guangdong, which was defeated after 10 days.
1907Jul. 6Xu Xi-lin carried out an aborted assassination and died in action in Anqing, Anhui Province.
1907Jul. 13Qiu Jin was arrested in Shaoxing, Zhejiang after a failed assassination attempt and executed 2 days after her arrest.
1907Aug. 20Tong Meng Hui published the Zhong Xing Daily in Singapore.
1907Sep. 1Sun instructed Wang He-shun to capture Qinzhou, Guangxi, i.e., Sun’s fifth uprising. Despite defeating Qing armies at several cities, the uprising failed in less than 20 days.
1907Dec. 1Sun ordered Huang Ming-tang to stage the sixth uprising in Zhennanguan, Guangxi and commanded the battle himself. Sun’s men retreated after 7 days due to insufficient supplies.
1908MarchSun departed for Singapore upon being forced to leave Hanoi by the French colonial officials there.
1908Mar.27Sun ordered Huang Xing to commanded troops to attack Qinzhou, Guangxi. This was the seventh uprising led by Sun.
1908Apr. 29Sun ordered Huang Ming-tang to stage the eighth uprising in Hekou, Yunnan.
1908OctoberSun made travels to Malaysia and Thailand to raise funds.
1908Dec. 13The Tong Meng Hui Burma Branch was established.
1909May 19Sun left Singapore for Europe to raise funds.
1909Oct. 30Sun left Britain for the United States.
1909Dec. 25The Tong Meng Hui New York Branch was established.
1910Jan. 18The Tong Meng Hui Chicago Branch was founded.
1910Feb. 10Sun arrived and set up a Tong Meng Hui branch in San Francisco.
1910Feb. 12Ni Ying-dian led the Qing government’s New Army to stage a mutiny in Guangzhou, but was crushed due to delayed supplies. Ni was killed in this ninth uprising.
1910Mar. 28Sun arrived and established a Tong Meng Hui branch in Honolulu.
1910May 30Sun left Honolulu and arrived first in Japan in June and then in Singapore July.
1910Jul. 19Sun’s mother, Mme. Yang, passed away.
1910Aug. 20Young China Daily, inaugurated by Sun in San Francisco.
1910Nov. 13A secret meeting, attended by leading Tong Meng Hui cadres and representatives from South East Asian countries and the south-eastern China provinces, was called in Penang to plot the second Guangzhou Uprising.
1910Dec. 6Sun left Penang for Europe, from where he later went to the US.
1911JanuarySun left the US for Canada.
1911Apr. 27The Guangzhou Uprising led by Huang Xing resulted in 86 deaths of the revolutionaries of which only 72 identifiable (i.e., the 72 Huanghuagang Martyrs). This was the 10th uprising led by Sun.
1911May 18Zhao Sheng died of anger and sorrow after the failure of Huanghuagang Uprising.
1911Jun. 17Revolutionaries mobilized the masses movements erupted in Chengdu, Sichuan to resist the centralization of railways by Qing Government.
1911Jul. 21Hong Men Charity Bureau was established in San Francisco.
1911Jul. 31Tong Meng Hui established its branch in Shanghai.
1911Sep. 7Qing’s massacre of the petitioners led to riot.
1911Oct. 10The Wuchang Uprising erupted, triggering revolutionary actions across the country.
1911Oct. 11Sun arrived in Denver, Colorado, and learned about the successful Wuchang Uprising.
1911Oct. 15Sun convened a gathering in Chicago to celebrate the upcoming birth of the Republic of China. In late October, Sun made his return trip to China via Britain and France.
1911Dec. 25Sun arrived in Shanghai.
1911Dec. 29Sun was elected the Provisional President of the Republic of China.
Planning the Second Revolution,
Safeguarding the Constitution (1912~1918)
Time Event
1912Jan. 1Sun arrived in Nanjing to assume the post of Provisional President. He announced that China would use the world calendar.
1912Feb. 12Pu Yi, the last Qing emperor, announced his abdication.
1912Feb. 13Sun presented his resignation and recommended to the Provisional Parliament Yuan Shikai be the Provisional President.
1912Feb. 14The Provisional Parliament accepted Sun’s resignation and elected Yuan as the Provisional President.
1912Feb. 15Sun headed the ceremony to celebrate the founding of the Republic of China and later led government officials to visit the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum.
1912Mar. 10Yuan Shikai assumed the post of the second Provisional President.
1912Mar. 11The Provisional Constitution is promulgated.
1912Apr. 1Sun officially terminated his duties as the Provisional President and began his lecture tour across the country.
1912Aug. 24At the invitation of Yuan Shikai, Sun arrived in Beijing, where he stayed for a month and held 13 discussions with Yuan.
1912Aug. 25Tong Meng Hui was reorganized as Kuomintang and Sun, elected as the executive chair, appointed Song Jiao-ren as his delegate.
1912Sep. 11Sun was appointed to plan the national railway network.
1912Sep. 25Sun, Huang Xing, Yuan Shikai and Li Yuanhong worked out the “Eight-Point Agreement on Party Operations”.
1912Oct. 3Sun surveyed existing railways in Shanxi, Hebei, and Shandong and ended his trip in Shanghai.
1912Oct. 10Sun published National Railway Construction Plan and Principle on the People’s Livelihood.
1912Oct. 14Sun established the Chinese General Railway Corporation in Shanghai to develop construction plan and seek international cooperation.
1912December Sun telegraphed Yuan Shikai to propose a monetary reform.
1913Feb. 11Sun departed for Japan to inspect railway construction and seek Japanese investment.
1913Mar. 20Song Jiao-ren was assassinated at the Shanghai Railway Station. The assassination was allegedly under Yuan Shikai’s instruction.
1913Mar. 23Shocked by Song Jiao-ren’s assassination, Sun, then in Japan, returned immediately back to Shanghai and argued that KMT should take an immediate military action against Yuan Shikai.
1913Apr. 27Yuan Shikai approved huge loans from the Five-Power Banking Consortium without legally endorsed by the Parliament.
1913JuneThree KMT military governors — Li Lie-jun of Jiangxi, Hu Han-min of Guangdong, and Bo Wen-wei of Anhui were dismissed from their posts by Yuan Shikai.
1913Jul. 12Marking the beginning of the Second Revolution, Sun ordered Li Lie-jun in Jiangxi to launch a crusade against Yuan Shikai, which was followed in Nanjing, Shanghai, Anqing, Guangzhou, Fujian, Hunan and Chongqing. The revolution was suppressed by Yuan in September.
1913Aug. 18Sun arrived in Tokyo via Taipei.
1913Sep. 27Sun planned to organize the Chinese Revolutionary Party.
1913Oct. 15Yuan Shikai ordered the arrest of Sun and principals of the Second Revolution.
1913Nov. 4Yuan ordered the dissolution of KMT as a political party.
1914Jan. 10Yuan Shikai ordered the dissolutions of the Provisional Parliament and, later on February 28, all provincial assemblies.
1914Jun. 23At the congress of the Chinese Revolutionary Party convened in Tokyo, Sun was elected the party’s chairman.
1914Jul. 8The Chinese Revolutionary Party was formally found and immediately launched crusades against Yuan Shikai in China and abroad.
1914Jul. 28World War I broke out in Europe.
1914Sep. 1Sun promulgated the Manifesto of the Chinese Revolutionary Party.
1914Sep. 20A meeting on revolution strategy was convened in Tokyo and the White Sun in Blue Sky over Red Land flag was selected as the national flag.
1914SeptemberJapan declared war against Germany and invaded China’s Shandong Province, which was leased to Germany at that time.
1915JanuaryJapan put forth the “21 Demands” to the Yuan government.
1915May 9Yuan’s government accepted the “21 Demands,” triggering off strong protests in the country.
1915AugustYang Du, Yuan’s follower, organized an association to make Yuan emperor.
1915SummerSun ordered his followers in Qingdao, Guangzhou and Sanyuan in Shanxi to set up headquarters of the Chinese Revolutionary Army.
1915Sep. 18Sun openly condemned Yuan Shikai.
1915October Sun married Mme Soong Ching-ling in Tokyo.
1915Dec. 5Chen Qi-mei led soldiers on the S. S. Zhao He to stage a mutiny.
1915Dec. 12Yuan Shikai declared himself emperor.
1915Dec. 25In Yunnan, Tang Ji-yao, Cai Eh and Li Lie-jun formed the Protecting Constitutional Government Army to fight against Yuan Shikai.
1915Dec. 31Yuan Shikai announced 1916 the initial year of the Hongxian dynasty.
1916JanuaryChinese Revolutionary Party launched anti-Yuan crusades in Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu.
1916Mar. 13Sun appointed Ju Zheng as the commander-in-chief of the Northeast Chinese Revolutionary Army and ordered Hebei, Shandong and Shanxi to join the effort to expel Yuan Shikai.
1916Mar. 22Yuan was forced to revoke his imperial restoration.
1916Mar. 23Yuan issued the declaration of nullity of Hongxian dynasty.
1916Apr. 27Sun returned from Japan to Shanghai to lead the anti-Yuan movement.
1916May 9Sun issued the second anti-Yuan manifesto.
1916May 18Chen Qi-mei was murdered out of Yuan Shikai’s order.
1916Jun. 6Yuan Shikai died.
1916Jun. 9Sun issued the Manifesto on Provisional Constitution Restoration.
1916Jun. 13Sun ordered the Chinese Revolutionary Army to cease fire.
1916Jun. 29Li Yuanhong succeeded as president and adopted Sun’s suggestion to restore the Provisional Constitution and Parliament.
1917Feb. 21Sun published the Basics of People’s Rights.
1917May 10Duan Qi-rui, encouraged by the Japanese, declared war on Germany and forced the Parliament to endorse the declaration.
1917Jun. 6Sun cabled south-western provinces to expel the bandits.
1917Jun. 13Li Yuanhong was forced by Zhang Xun to dismiss the Parliament.
1917JuneSun mobilized the Navy in Shanghai to defend the Constitution.
1917Jul. 1Zhang Xun reseated the last emperor of the Qing court.
1917Jul. 4Sun issued the Manifesto on Expelling the Bandits.
1917Jul. 17Sun arrived in Guangzhou to rally for the defense of the Constitution.
1917Aug. 25An extraordinary session of the Parliament was convened in Guangzhou.
1917Sep. 1Sun was elected generalissimo by the Parliament.
1917Sep. 10Sun assumed as generalissimo and issued a declaration on quelling rebellion and safeguarding the Constitution.
1917Oct. 7Sun ordered the Northern Expedition, i.e., the Crusade to Protect the Constitution.
1918AprilThe Parliament forced by warlords in Guangxi to reorganize the military government.
1918May 4Sun announced his resignation as generalissimo.
1918May 20The Parliament’s extraordinary session elected a directorate of seven members, including Sun.
1918May 21Sun resigned and departed for Shanghai to concentrate on writing.
1918Aug. 20Sun published an open letter to his comrades advocating that KMT should revise its constitution and enhance party functions.
1918Oct. 24Xu Shi-chang, the new President of the Beijing government, proposed a peaceful negotiations which was accepted favorably by the Guangzhou Military Government.
1918DecemberSun completed the writing of Preface to The Doctrine of Sun Wen in Shanghai.
Reorganizing the Revolutionary Party, Launching
the Northern Expedition (1919~1922)
Time Event
1919Feb. 20The negotiation meeting between the northern and southern governments took place in Shanghai.
1919May 4To demand the sovereignty in Shandong, students in Beijing launched the May 4th Movement and demonstrations to protest against the transfer of privileges enjoyed by Germany to Japan.
1919MaySun published The Declaration on Safeguarding the Constitution in Shanghai.
1919May 13The North-South negotiation failed.
1919May 20Sun published The Doctrine of Sun Wen.
1919Aug. 1Reconstruction Magazine inaugurated in Shanghai and carried in its first issue Sun’s The International Development of China.
1919Aug. 7The Military Government was manipulated by the Guangxi warlords. Sun resigned from his post and denounced the Guangxi warlords.
1919SeptemberSun called a meeting at his Shanghai residence to address the reform of the KMT.
1919Oct. 10Sun announced the restructuring of the Chinese Revolutionary Party into the Kuomintang and published its new constitution.
1919DecemberSun telegraphed military governors of Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan and Guangdong to quell the Guangxi warlords.
1920MarchSun completed The Initial Implementation of Local Autonomy.
1920Jun. 3Sun, together with Tang Shao-yi, Wu Ting-fang and Tang Ji-yao, reprimanded the Guangxi warlords.
1920Aug. 16Chen Jiong-ming, acting on Sun’s order, commanded the Guangdong Army in Zhangzhou, Fujian to quell the Guangxi warlords.
1920Sep. 21Zhu Zhi-xin was killed in Humen, Guangdong.
1920Oct. 29Guangzhou was recovered by the Guangdong Army.
1920NovemberSun revised the KMT Policy and Procedures and completed the KMT Constitution.
1920Dec. 29Sun arrived in Guangzhou to restore the Military Government and extraordinary session of the Parliament.
1921Apr. 2The extraordinary session of the Parliament decided to dismiss the military government.
1921Apr. 7The Parliament passed the Organization Guidelines for the Republic of China and elected Sun as the president.
1921May 5Sun was sworn in as the President of the Republic of China and the government was formed.
1921May 28Sun ordered his various forces to quell Lu Rong-ting, one of Guangxi warlords, and had the order of the province restored in September.
1921Oct. 8Sun proposed a northern expedition program to the Parliament.
1921Oct. 10Sun published The International Development of China.
1921Dec. 4Sun established general headquarters in Guilin, Guangxi.
1921Dec. 10Sun delivered a speech to his troops in Guangxi on “Cultivating the Soldiers’ Spirit.”
1921Dec. 23Sun met with Maring, representative of the Communist International.
1922JanuarySun moved the general headquarters from Guilin in Guangxi to Shaoguan, Guangdong.
1922Feb. 3Sun ordered the launch of the Northern Expedition, instructing Li Lie-jun and Xu Chong-zhi to attack Jiangxi and Hunan.
1922Feb. 27The Northern Expedition Pledge Ceremony was held in Guilin.
1922MarchSun’s Northern Expedition army pulled back from Guilin due to Chen Jiong-ming’s obstruction and arrived in Guangdong in April.
1922May 6Sun left Guangzhou for Shaoguan and inspected his forces there. The Northern Expedition troops advanced to Jiangxi.
1922Jun. 1Sun returned to Guangzhou because of the insurgence plotted by Chen Jiong-ming.
1922Jun. 11Wars broke between warlords in the north. President Xu Shichang of the Beijing government resigned on Jun. 2 and Li Yuanhong succeeded as the president.
1922Jun. 16Chen Jiong-ming rebelled in Guangzhou. Sun fled to the Navy Headquarters and commanded the Navy to launch counter-attacks.
1922Jun. 23Sun embarked on the Yong Feng Warship. On Jun. 29, Chiang Kai-shek boarded the ship to accompany Sun.
1922Jul. 10Sun commanded the Navy fleet to bomb the rebellions and to stationed at the Baietan (White Goose Pool).
1922Aug. 9Northern Expedition troops retreated in defeat. On Nov. 14, Sun went to Shanghai where he issued an declaration denouncing Chen Jiong-ming on the next day.
1922Aug. 25Sun met with Adolf Joffe, the representative of the Soviet Union.
1922SeptemberSun convened a meeting to discuss the reform of the KMT.
1922OctoberSun ordered Xu Chong-zhi to attack Chen Jiong-ming from the east, and Zou Lu to act from the west.
1922DecemberSun’s troops in Yunnan and Guangxi attacked Chen Jiong-ming and recovered Guangzhou and Wuzhou.
Peaceful Unification of the Country --
A Great Historic Achievement (1923~1940)
Time Event
1923Jan. 1The KMT announced its reform programs and policies in line with the Three Principles of the People.
1923Jan. 2Sun convened a convention in Shanghai to address KMT reforms.
1923January Sun defeated Chen Jiong-ming’s troops. Chen fled to Huizhou in Guangdong.
1923Jan. 26Sun and Adolf Joffe issued a joint statement, indicating the Soviet system not applicable in China because China does not own the conditions to promise its success.
1923Jan. 26Sun issued The Declaration on Peaceful Unification and demanded the four major warlords not to offend each other.
1923Jan. 29Sun published The Chinese Revolutionary History.
1923Feb. 21Sun arrived in Guangzhou to establish the general headquarters and resumed as the generalissimo. 3 days later, he called for disarmament.
1923Mar. 2The general headquarters was officially established and Chiang Kai-shek was appointed as the Chief of General Staff.
1923May 9Sun and Chiang Kai-shek led the revolutionary forces to quell the revolt headed by Chen Jiong-ming in Dongjiang, Guangdong.
1923Jun. 13A coup d’etat took place in Beijing and President Li Yuanhong was ousted. Two days later, Sun telegraphed Parliament members in Beijing to ensure justice is maintained.
1923Aug. 16Chiang Kai-shek was instructed by Sun to visit the Soviet Union.
1923Aug. 25Chen Jiong-ming, with the support of northern warlords, launched another whole-scale attack. Sun commanded the battle at the frontline.
1923Oct. 6Michael Borodin, Representative of the Soviet Union, arrived in Guangzhou and was appointed as the advisor on party organizing by KMT.
1923Oct. 9Sun ordered his army to dispel Cao Kun, who won the presidential election through bribery.
1923NovemberChen Jiong-ming’s troops seized Shilong and Guangzhou was in danger, but they were defeated on Nov. 19.
1923NovemberSun published The Declaration on KMT Reform.
1923Nov. 26The KMT decided to establish a military academy.
1923DecemberSun issued a declaration on the Guangdong Customs and protesting against the intervention of US and Britain in China’s internal affairs.
1924Jan. 20Sun convened the First National Congress of the KMT in Guangzhou.
1924Jan. 27~ Aug. 24 Under the condition of illness, Sun lectured on the Three Principles of the People (6 lectures on Nationalism, 6 lectures on People’s Rights, and 4 lectures on People’s Livelihood) at the Guangzhou Secondary Normal School (today’s Sun Yat-sen University). To seek peaceful unification, he travelled north for the peace talk and was unable to finished the lectures on People’s Livelihood.
1924Apr. 12Sun published The Fundamentals of National Reconstruction.
1924Jun. 16The opening ceremony of the Huangpu Military Academy was held.
1924JuneDeng Ze-ru, Wu Jing-heng and others on the KMT advisory board proposed to impeach Communist members within the KMT.
1924Jul. 7The KMT reaffirmed accepting the People’s Three Principles is the precondition under which the Communists would be accommodated.
1924Aug. 2Sun demanded the establishment of Central Bank in Guangzhou.
1924AugustAfter more than 2 months, the Guangzhou Trading Society incident completely subdued in October by the Huangpu Military Academy student army led by Chiang Kai-shek.
1924SeptemberSun went to Shaoguan to command the Northern Expedition and published The Northern Expedition Declaration.
1924Oct. 23Feng Yu-Xiang staged a coup d’etat and forced Cao Kun to step down.
1924Nov. 13At the invitation of General Feng Yu-xiang, Sun visited Beijing to discuss the strategy for peaceful unification. Before his journey, Sun issued a declaration calling for the convening of National Conference and the abolishment of all unequal treaties.
1924Nov. 21Sun departed from Shanghai to Tianjin, via Japan. While making a stop in Kobe, on Nov. 28, Sun delivered a speech on Pan-Asianism.
1924Dec. 4Sun, warmly welcomed in Tianjin, turned ill due to cold and exhaustion.
1924Dec. 31Sun arrived in Beijing with ailment. He issued The Declaration on Entering Beijing.
1925JanuarySun demanded the immediate convening of National Conference to which Duan Qi-rui responded with a settlement meeting. Sun agreed with 2 conditions — inclusion of civil organization representatives and National Conference having the right to make ultimate decisions.
1925Jan. 26Sun received medical operation at the Peking Union Medical Hospital.
1925Feb. 1Chen Jiong-ming attacked Guangzhou again, and the revolutionary forces launched the Eastern Expedition to fight back.
1925Feb. 18Sun moved from the hospital to Tieshizitou Alley in Beijing.
1925Mar. 7The revolutionary forces won the battles in eastern Guangdong.
1925Mar. 11Sun signed his wills for both the state and his family.
1925Mar. 12Sun passed away at 9:30 a.m.
1925Mar. 15Sun’s remains were put into the coffin.
1925Mar. 19Sun’s remains were moved to the Central Park (today’s Zhongshan Park) in Beijing for the public to pay tribute.
1925Apr. 2Sun’s remains were moved to Biyun Temple in the Fragrance Hills in the west suburbs of Beijing.
1925Apr. 16To honor Sun, the Guangdong government renamed Sun Yat-sen’s hometown Xiangshan County as Zhongshan County and the Yong Feng Warship as Zhong Shan Warship.
1925May 16The Third Plenary Session of the First Central Committee of the KMT formally adopted Sun’s will.
1929Jun. 1Sun’s remains were buried on the Zijin Hill in Nanjing.
1940Apr. 1The Republic Government promulgated Sun as the “Founding Father of the Republic of China.”
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